1. Bought from C. T. Loo [Lu Qinzhai] 盧芹齋 and Company, New York. For price, see Freer Gallery of Art Purchase List after 1920.
2. (John Ellerton Lodge, 1941) Although this blade is relatively broad, somewhat spatulate and perfectly symmetrical, it is, no doubt, derived from the ko [ge] 戈 type of weapon in its earliest known form, --as seen, e.g., in early bronze inscriptions where it commonly appears more sharply pointed, indeed, but still relatively broad, perfectly symmetrical, and mounted at right angles to its shaft. Jades of this sort are not recognizable among those described in the Chou Li [Zhou Li] 周禮, nor is anything of the kind illustrated by Wu Ta ch'eng [Wu Dacheng] 吳大澂 in his Ku-yu t'u k'ao [Guyu tu kao] 古玉圖考 (Shanghai: Tongwen shuju, 1889). One similar blade has, however, been reproduced by Huang Chun [Huang Jun] 黃濬 in his Ku-yu t'u-lu ch'u-chi [Guyu tulu chuji] 古玉圖錄初集 (Beijing: Zunguzhai, 1939), vol. 1, p. 14 verso); but evidently the type is now rare. When ours was first shown to me, there was a good deal of dried mud and cinnabar on it which brushed off quite easily. The dealer said, moreover, that he believed the blade was found at Anyang 安陽, and this could be true, no doubt. To me, in any case, the form and the exquisite finish of the blade suggest a date as early as Shang 商. In this connection, compare F1917.396, F1917.17, F1939.19, F1939.20.
3. (Undated Folder Sheet note) Sp. G. is 2.958. Extensive surface alteration due to decomposition prevents a higher calculation for nephrite.
4. (Julia K. Murray, 1980) Exhibition Ancient Chinese Jade label text; moved to label field.
5. (Julia K. Murray, 1982) For a general discussion of jade ko [ge] 戈, see Folder Sheet F1917.396.
A jade ko [ge] 戈 very similar in size and shape was found in the tomb of Fu Hao 婦好 at Anyang 安陽 (late 13th--early 12th century BCE); reproduced in Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan kaogu yanjiusuo 中國社會科學院考古研究所, Yinxu Fu Hao mu 殷墟婦好墓 (Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe, 1980), pl. 113: 2 upper (924). Like the ko [ge] 戈 F1941.3, the excavated ko [ge] 戈 also has a median ridge that runs from the tip of the blade only to the hole, and a distinct ridge of material remains on the wall of the perforation.
6. (Stephen Allee as per Keith Wilson, June 12, 2008) Changed Object Name from "Weapon: halberd (ge 戈)" to "Ceremonial object"; changed Title from "Ceremonial weapon" to "Dagger-axe (ge 戈)." Added Dimensions per Christine Lee, from Jade Project Database.
7. (Jeffrey Smith per Keith Wilson, July 16, 2008) Ceremonial object added as secondary classification.
8. (Jeffrey Smith per Janet Douglas, June 17, 2010) Nephrite added as modifier to existing medium of "jade" based on conservation analysis.
9. (Najiba Choudhury per Keith Wilson, August 16, 2017) Title changed from "Dagger-axe (ge)" to "Dagger axe (ge 戈), fragment reworked"; period one changed from "Shang dynasty" to "Erlitou culture or early Shang dynasty"; date changed from "ca. 13th-11th century BCE" to "ca. 2000-1400 BCE"; geography changed from "China" to "China, probably Henan province"; dimensions changed to "H x W x D: 10.3 x 26.7 x 0.9 cm (4 1/16 x 10 1/2 x 3/8 in)".
10. (Najiba Choudhury per Keith Wilson, February 4, 2019) Added Chinese translation by Jingmin Zhang.
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